Sodium hydride is the chemical compound with the empirical formula NaH. This alkali metal hydride is primarily used as a strong, yet combustible base in organic synthesis. NaH is a base of wide scope and utility in organic chemistry. As a superbase, it is capable of deprotonating a range of even weak Bronsted acids to give the corresponding sodium derivatives. Typical "easy" substrates contain O-H, N-H, S-H bonds, including alcohols, phenols, pyrazoles, and thiols.
Sodium hydride is prepared by the direct effect between sodium metal and hydrogen gas in which hydrogen gas passes into molten sodium metal separated in oil and instead, the hydride can be made by moving hydrogen into sodium scattered over the exterior of an inert stable, such as hydrocarbon above 200°C temperature.
2 Na + H2 → 2 NaH
Sodium hydride most prominently is employed to deprotonate carbon acids such as 1,3-dicarbonyls and analogs such as malonic esters. The resulting sodium derivatives can be alkylated.
Sodium hydride is extensively used to support condensation reactions of carbonyl composites and used as metal surface rust, reducing agents, condensing agent, desiccant and the Clay Johnson's reagents.
Other carbon acids sensitive to deprotonation by NaH include sulfonium salts and DMSO. Sodium hydride is utilized to make sulfur ylides, which in turn are related to converting ketones into epoxides.
The total use of sodium hydride has been submitted for hydrogen storage for application in fuel cell vehicles, the hydride being encased in plastic pellets which are usually crushed in the appearance of water to release the hydrogen.
It is used as a pure condensing agent, an alkylating agent, and a reducing agent, etc. which is frequently sold by various chemical suppliers like Alkali Metals that is in a mixture of 60% sodium hydride (w/w) in mineral oil. Such a dispersion is competent to handle and weigh than pure NaH.
Generally, it is an essential reductant for all the Pharmaceutical, perfumes, dyes, but also sodium hydride used as a drying factor, an alkylating agent, and etc.
Reactions involving sodium hydride want an inert atmosphere, such as nitrogen or argon gas. Typically NaH is utilized as a suspension in THF, a solvent that commonly resists deprotonation but solvates many organosodium mixtures.